Inertial Geodesy and Navigation
Beside GNSS receivers inertial navigation systems (INS) are the second essential group of sensors for kinematic position and attitude determination, which is used in navigation and as well for surveying applications. Research at PSG in this field is focusing on the following three topics:
- Properties of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and inertial navigation systems (INS).
- Multi-sensor integration with focus on GNSS/IMU.
- Integrity and safety in automotive applications of navigation system.
Localization systems based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) already play an important role in today’s automotive positioning. In the wake of the advent of autonomously driving cars, the required performance of these localization systems increases drastically. Since vehicles traveling on the road quite often experience poor satellite visibility (due to tunnels, urban canyons, etc.), it is a common approach to use other sensors that can provide information about movement and/or position of the vehicle in addition to a GNSS receiver. This method is called sensor data fusion. One of the most common approaches is the integration of GNSS and inertial measurement units (IMU). Due to high cost pressure, low-cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) IMUs are widely used in automotive positioning. Since the measurement quality of these low-cost IMUs is not sufficient to provide a navigation solution of sufficient quality when the GNSS reception is poor over a longer period of time, many algorithms add even more sensors (e.g. odometry, lidar, cameras, etc.).